Ancient towns and scripture PDF 2023 : We hear the words culture and civilization from time to time. Do you know what that means? Culture is a thing related to human habitation, man creates a particular stage of life by his intelligence, skill and artistic skill. Such great civilizations of human society are found in Egypt, India, China, Rome in the world. This centuries-old civilization still inspires human life. So let’s find out..
Ancient Towns and scripture PDF 2023 :
Harappan Civilization is also known as Indus Valley Civilization. The first fossils of this civilization were found in Harappan in the year 1921. Some places of civilization like Harappan, Mohenjodaro, Lothal, Dholavira, Kalibangan, Rakhigarhi etc. are spread in the north western part of India.
Town Planning :
Planned town planning was the hallmark of the Harappan civilization. Cities were built in a similar fashion. At all places there was a fort in the west and settlement of the common people in the east. Both were separated by a highway. There was a fort on the west side around the fort. The fort must have been the residence of the rulers. Most of the bricks were used in their city building. Here are some features of the cities of Harappan civilization.
The main feature of the Harappan civilization was its planned construction system. Houses built on high roofs to protect against floods and moisture. One of the specialties of the houses here was that the doors of the houses had fallen inwards instead of the main road and one and two-storey houses were visible here. The roads here were convenient. The city’s two main highways run from north to south and east to west. There were roads parallel to the main roads, the roads intersecting each other at right angles. The streets and alleys were planned in such a way that the whole city was divided into square and rectangular sections. Evidence of night lighting has also been found on public roads. The Harappan civilization had a highly developed and systematic system for the disposal of drinking water. The water of each house used to flow into the small drain and from the small drain into the big drain. The water of a big drain drained out of the city.
A public bath has been found at Mohenjo daro. In between these baths there are steps on either side to descend to take a bath. There are changing rooms around the bathroom. This public bath can be used for festivals or religious occasions. Apart from this, the auditorium has been identified as a pillared building found at Mohen-jo-daro. Harappa is an archaeological site in the Montgomery district of Punjab (now in Pakistan). Harappa would be the main city of the Indus Valley Civilization. The main feature here is its granaries. 12 granaries have been found here on the banks of river Ravi.
Lothal is situated on the banks of the Bhogavo river in Dholka taluka of Ahmedabad district. Lothal was a trading port and industrial city in ancient times. A brick structure has been found at Lothal. This is considered a push. It is believed that it was used to anchor ships and to load and unload ships. Apart from this, a warehouse and a bead factory have been found here. So it can be said that Lothal would be a prosperous port of ancient India and the international trade of Harappan civilization would take place through the port of Lothal.
Dholavira is an archaeological site located in the Khadirbet area of Bhachau taluka of Kutch district. The Harappan towns are generally divided into two parts, while the city of Dholavira is divided into three parts. 1) Fort 2) Upper City 3) Lower City. The main feature of Dholavira city is the rain water harvesting system and stadium.
The city of Kalibangan in Rajasthan was the headquarters of the agricultural revolution of the Harappan civilization. The remains of cultivated fields here testify to this fact. The copper fossils found here prove that copper tools may have been made here and that these tools may have been used in agriculture.
Thus, the city planning of the Indus Valley Civilization was well-organized, well-organized, well-planned and efficient. It is a wonderful reflection of the ruling power of the then ruling class, the artistic power of the artisans.
Download – Ancient towns and scripture PDF 2023
Economic life of Harappan civilization PDF :
The main occupation of the people of Indus Valley Civilization was agriculture and animal husbandry and the diet of the people of this time included wheat, barley, millet, peas, sesame, dates etc. Due to animal husbandry, their diet consisted of milk and milk products. Fishing hooks have been found in the remains of this civilization. So the diet will also include fish.
The costumes of the people of that time are based on the sculptures found in the Indus Valley Civilization. The men and women here wore two clothes. Wrapping the undergarments from the waist down to the current dhoti and from top to left shoulder to the bottom of the right arm. They mainly used cotton cloth and were also familiar with woolen cloth. On the basis of needles made of metal and ivory, it is inferred that he may have worn a hand made Clothes. Even so, owning one is still out of reach for the average person.
The people of Indus Valley Civilization made pottery, copper and bronze utensils. These include earthenware cups, bowls, jugs, jugs, saucers, catheters, etc. People of Indus Valley Civilization made different types of toys for their children. These include bird-like whistles, crocodiles, carts, lakhoti, cattle, birds and female-male-shaped toys. In a way, the creativity and artistry of these people remains engaged in their toys. Toys with nodding animals and tree-climbing monkeys can be seen.
Also Read :
- Best Forest Guard Book PDF 2022 : Read Now
religious life and funerals rites :
We get information about the religious life of the Harappan civilization from sculptures and postures. Among the sculptures historians consider the idols of Matrikadevi to be a symbol of the earth, which means that the people of the Harappan civilization may have worshiped the earth as the earth provided food and water. Apart from this they will worship the tree, the snake deity and the swastika. Relics of fire worship have been found at Lothal and Kalibangan.
The people of the Harappan civilization must have been bural and evidence of cremation has been found at many places. They used to bury the dead and took some things with them. Which reflects the idea of life after his death.
script and language of Indus valley civilization :
Coins, rings, copper plates have been found from the remains of the Indus Valley Civilization. They have inscriptions in the language of an unsolved mystery. Although these texts are short, quantitative letters and conjunctions are found. Several attempts were made to solve this script, but without success.