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Unemployment in India UPSC notes PDF Download
Unemployment in India UPSC notes PDF Download : Nowadays, many countries of the world are facing many economic and social problems like poverty, unemployment, inflation, and recession. These problems have created an alarming situation in the world today. It is a reality that even though every country is trying its own way to get out of these problems, this problem has not been completely solved.
Even though developed and developing countries have made economic development, they have not succeeded in creating full employment, as a result the problem of unemployment has taken the form of a global problem. Even in India, the problem of unemployment is a long-standing problem, that is why priority has been given in planning to solve the problem of unemployment, but the country has developed economically. Although the problem of unemployment has increased rather than decreased, it is a limitation of our planning. In developing India, due to high population growth rate on one hand and inadequate economic development on the other hand, the problem of unemployment has assumed a more serious form.
Meaning of Unemployment in Economics
Generally, unemployment means the state without work of a person who can work..
Pigou Theory of unemployment PDF
According to Professor Pigou, Unemployment means that “a person is unemployed only when he is unable to find work despite his desire to work”.
In shorts, Unemployment means when a person does not find work despite the desire, energy and readiness to work at the prevailing wage rate, that person is said to be under two jobs.
Types of Unemployment in economics UPSC
If you are preparing for UPSC exam then types of unemployment can be most IMP for you because often types of unemployment are asked in exam and many friends can’t answer those questions. So today we have mentioned the types of unemployment in the article so read it carefully so that there is no problem in any upcoming exam.
Total Unemployment in India
A person who wants to get employment at the prevailing wage rate and has the necessary qualifications, but does not get any employment at all is called Total unemployed or openly unemployed.
In countries where the labor supply is increasing rapidly and the process of urbanization is also rapid, the growth rate of such total unemployment is high. This type of unemployment is more prevalent in urban than rural areas where most of the open unemployed are people who have migrated from rural areas to urban areas in search of work. Educated and untrained students are generally the victims of outright unemployment.
People who are not able to utilize their energies fully i.e. have to accept work for less time or less qualified are called semi-unemployed.
Voluntary unemployment means hidden unemployment. This type of unemployment is especially seen in a developing country like India.
Meaning: An industry employs more workers than is required in terms of existing technology. If such additional workers are removed from the sector without any change in total output, they are called Voluntary Unemployment.
Cyclical Unemployment Definition
When there is a recession in the economy as a whole, demand for goods and services decreases, as a result of which there is a lack of effective demand, industries have to reduce production or close down production units and many workers are laid off and recession causes unemployment. Unemployment is called cyclical unemployment.
Frictional Unemployment definition
In developed countries, new production method replaces the old production method, the units with the old production method are financially damaged, some units are closed down, as a result, the workers engaged in them have to remain unemployed until they learn the work according to the new method of production. This means that this form of unemployment is short-term.
Causes of unemployment in India UPSC
The information on the unemployment rate in India is obtained from the unemployment report published by the Planning Commission, Central Statistical Organization, National Sample Survey and Employment Exchange, as well as the report of the Bhagwati Committee formed for the purpose of studying the problem of unemployment in India.
Inspite of planning measures taken since 1951 to raise the rate of economic growth of India and to solve the problem of unemployment, the problem of unemployment has become increasingly acute.
India had 53 lacs unemployed at the end of the First Five Year Plan which increased to 304 lakh at the end of the Fifth Plan and 348.5 lacs at the end of the Ninth Plan.
From the above information it can be concluded that there is widespread unemployment in India and it is increasing steadily which is a matter of concern. Rapid growth in labor supply, moderate increase in employment opportunities, low savings and capital investment rates and lack of education system are responsible for increasing unemployment and some of the main reasons for the unemployment problem in India, let us check from the following article.
- Population growth rate
- Slow growth in employment opportunities
- Efficacy of savings and capital investment
- Capital production method
- Low level of vocational education
- Lack of manpower planning
- Public sector inefficiencies
- Neglect of agricultural sector development
- Mobility between labor
- Inadequate infrastructure
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Measurement of unemployment in India UPSC
From the study about the extent and causes of unemployment in India, it is clear that the problem of unemployment in India is becoming more and more alarming day by day, after examining the causes, one can easily get an idea of the solutions to this problem. The problem of unemployment is not only an economic problem but also raises a social, moral and anthropological problem. This question is also worrisome from a political point of view. From the First Five Year Plan to Eradication of Unemployment in India which has been laid down to eliminate it especially in the Fifth and Sixth Plans special attention has been given to solve the problem of unemployment. The Eighth Plan also thought of making the basic right of employment for the elimination of unemployment and amending the constitution for that. But even though it was not possible, it is clear that providing suitable opportunities for employment to the people of the country remains the primary responsibility of the state.
The following measures can be taken to alleviate the problem of unemployment in India:
- Population control
- To take the rate of economic development higher
- Employment oriented planning
- Employment oriented education
- Development of cottage and small scale industries
- Area of inter-infrastructural service
- Pace and extent of green revolution in agriculture sector
If the problem of unemployment is fought and solved well then this problem can be solved if you like our article then you can also share with your friends and if any question you can tell us in comment we We will definitely reply to your comments. Thank You!!